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谭老师地理工作室

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研究方向:中学地理教育教学、国家天文地理奥赛培训、地理冬夏令营野外实践活动策划与实施、户外生存徒步骑行爬山野驴训练、中学自主和研究性学习研究、学业规划和生涯指导分析、自主招生笔面试研究、在线移动互联网教育实践等。

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Bill Gates Harvard Commencement Speech比尔盖茨哈佛毕业致辞  

2010-08-27 21:43:51|  分类: 昌所欲言 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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President Bok, former President Rudenstine, incoming President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, members of the faculty, parents, and especially, the graduates:

尊敬的博克主席,鲁登斯坦前主席,新任主席浮士德先生,哈佛办事处成员,各学院成员,家长们,特别是,毕业生们:

I’ve been waiting more than 30 years to say this: “Dad, I always told you I’d come back and get my degree.”

我等这句话30多年了“老爸,我会回来弄到学位的”

I want to thank Harvard for this timely honor. I’ll be changing my job next year … and it will be nice to finally have a college degree on my resume.

这次我诚挚的感谢哈佛,明年我就要换工作了,在简历上最终有个大学学位肯定好极了

I applaud the graduates today for taking a much more direct route to your degrees. For my part, I’m just happy that the Crimson has called me “Harvard’s most successful dropout.” I guess that makes me valedictorian of my own special class … I did the best of everyone who failed.

我要祝贺今天的毕业生直接拿到学位。对我而言,最好的称呼就是 哈佛最成功的辍学生。这使我成为班上的致辞者,其他人没有机会。

But I also want to be recognized as the guy who got Steve Ballmer to drop out of business school. I’m a bad influence. That’s why I was invited to speak at your graduation. If I had spoken at your orientation, fewer of you might be here today.

我希望被认为是退出商学院得到史蒂夫·巴尔默的家伙,我有个坏影响,这是我被邀请发言的原因。若我讲了你们的价值取向,没几个人会在这里了。

Harvard was just a phenomenal experience for me. Academic life was fascinating. I used to sit in on lots of classes I hadn’t even signed up for. And dorm life was terrific. I lived up at Radcliffe, in Currier House. There were always lots of people in my dorm room late at night discussing things, because everyone knew I didn’t worry about getting up in the morning. That’s how I came to be the leader of the anti-social group. We clung to each other as a way of validating our rejection of all those social people.

读哈佛是个非凡的经历,学院生活吸引人,我经常听课,即使没有选修,但宿舍生活太可怕了,我住在克里栋,每晚都卧谈,他们知道我不担心早起。我成了反社会社的头头,团结一致摒弃社会主义者

Radcliffe was a great place to live. There were more women up there, and most of the guys were science-math types. That combination offered me the best odds, if you know what I mean. This is where I learned the sad lesson that improving your odds doesn’t guarantee success.

赖楼好住。有很多女生,男生都是理科型,我如鱼得水,也懂得了好机会不一定成功。

One of my biggest memories of Harvard came in January 1975, when I made a call from Currier House to a company in Albuquerque that had begun making the world’s first personal computers. I offered to sell them software.

我印象最深刻的是在哈佛1975年,在宿舍给阿市某制造个人电脑的公司打电话买软件。

I worried that they would realize I was just a student in a dorm and hang up on me. Instead they said: “We’re not quite ready, come see us in a month,” which was a good thing, because we hadn’t written the software yet. From that moment, I worked day and night on this little extra credit project that marked the end of my college education and the beginning of a remarkable journey with Microsoft.

我怕他们知道我是学生,然而他们说“我们还没准备好,一个月后见”太好了,我们也没有写软件呢。从那时起,我夜以继日的为此工作,断送了学业,开始了微软的旅程。

What I remember above all about Harvard was being in the midst of so much energy and intelligence. It could be exhilarating, intimidating, sometimes even discouraging, but always challenging. It was an amazing privilege – and though I left early, I was transformed by my years at Harvard, the friendships I made, and the ideas I worked on.

我所记忆的哈佛一切是我活力和智力的中坚,令人或振奋,或可怕,或沮丧,但具挑战性,独具殊荣。即使我辍学早,我被哈佛影响,包括我的友谊和创意。

But taking a serious look back … I do have one big regret.

严肃回顾一下,有个大的懊悔。

I left Harvard with no real awareness of the awful inequities in the world – the appalling disparities of health, and wealth, and opportunity that condemn millions of people to lives of despair.

我离开时没有真正意识到世界的不公,健康,财富,机会

I learned a lot here at Harvard about new ideas in economics and politics. I got great exposure to the advances being made in the sciences.

我在哈佛发现好多政治经济的创意,科学的巨大能力。

But humanity’s greatest advances are not in its discoveries – but in how those discoveries are applied to reduce inequity.

但人最大的优点不是发现,而是消除不公。

Whether through democracy, strong public education, quality health care, or broad economic opportunity – reducing inequity is the highest human achievement.

无论是通过民主,健全公共教育,平等医疗体制,或者宽松的经济政策,消除不公是人类最大的目标。
I left campus knowing little about the millions of young people cheated out of educational opportunities here in this country. And I knew nothing about the millions of people living in unspeakable poverty and disease in developing countries.

我离开校园,但不知成千上万的年轻人没有教育机会,受贫困和疾病的困扰。

It took me decades to find out.

我花了几十年去认识这一点。

You graduates came to Harvard at a different time. You know more about the world’s inequities than the classes that came before. In your years here, I hope you’ve had a chance to think about how – in this age of accelerating technology – we can finally take on these inequities, and we can solve them.

你们不同时代来到哈佛,更了解世界的不公正,希望你们仔细想想在科技时代如何解决世界的不公正。

Imagine, just for the sake of discussion, that you had a few hours a week and a few dollars a month to donate to a cause – and you wanted to spend that time and money where it would have the greatest impact in saving and improving lives. Where would you spend it?

设想一下,只是假设,你一周有几小时,一个月有几美元捐赠,你想时间和金钱效益最大化,你将花在哪里?

For Melinda and for me, the challenge is the same: how can we do the most good for the greatest number with the resources we have.

我们的挑战也是一样,怎样利用有限的资源做最大的事情?

During our discussions on this question, Melinda and I read an article about the millions of children who were dying every year in poor countries from diseases that we had long ago made harmless in this country. Measles, malaria, pneumonia, hepatitis B, yellow fever. One disease I had never even heard of, rotavirus, was killing half a million kids each year – none of them in the United States.

经讨论,有个国家,我们伤害过,很多儿童死于贫穷和疾病,他们都不在美国。

We were shocked. We had just assumed that if millions of children were dying and they could be saved, the world would make it a priority to discover and deliver the medicines to save them. But it did not. For under a dollar, there were interventions that could save lives that just weren’t being delivered.

我们被震惊了,若孩子们得救,全世界该给研制运输药品的优先权。但实际不是。救命的一美元不给邮寄。

If you believe that every life has equal value, it’s revolting to learn that some lives are seen as worth saving and others are not. We said to ourselves: “This can’t be true. But if it is true, it deserves to be the priority of our giving.”

若人生而平等,生命贵贱不同令人发耻。这不可能,但是真的,使我们赠与优先权的所得。

So we began our work in the same way anyone here would begin it. We asked: “How could the world let these children die?”

我们开始工作,和他人一样,怎能让孩子死去?

The answer is simple, and harsh. The market did not reward saving the lives of these children, and governments did not subsidize it. So the children died because their mothers and their fathers had no power in the market and no voice in the system.

答案简单,尖锐,市场不奖励拯救孩子,政府不资助。孩子死掉是因为父母没有能力。

But you and I have both.

但是你我都有这个能力。

We can make market forces work better for the poor if we can develop a more creative capitalism – if we can stretch the reach of market forces so that more people can make a profit, or at least make a living, serving people who are suffering from the worst inequities. We also can press governments around the world to spend taxpayer money in ways that better reflect the values of the people who pay the taxes.

我们能使市场更好的为穷人工作。若我们改革资本制度,发展市场的力量,让穷人活命,消除不公。给政府施压,让纳税人受益。

If we can find approaches that meet the needs of the poor in ways that generate profits for business and votes for politicians, we will have found a sustainable way to reduce inequity in the world. This task is open-ended. It can never be finished. But a conscious effort to answer this challenge will change the world.

若能通过商业收益和民主选举满足穷人所需,这就是可持续消除不公正的方法,永无止境,有意为之,世界将会为之改变。

I am optimistic that we can do this, but I talk to skeptics who claim there is no hope. They say: “Inequity has been with us since the beginning, and will be with us till the end – because people just … don’t … care.” I completely disagree.

我乐观对之,怀疑者说人生来本来就不平等,人们也不关系,我不同意。

I believe we have more caring than we know what to do with.

我深信能关心更多。

All of us here in this Yard, at one time or another, have seen human tragedies that broke our hearts, and yet we did nothing – not because we didn’t care, but because we didn’t know what to do. If we had known how to help, we would have acted.

在座的各位,不是不关心人间悲剧,只是不知怎么做。

The barrier to change is not too little caring; it is too much complexity.

挑战是太复杂。

To turn caring into action, we need to see a problem, see a solution, and see the impact. But complexity blocks all three steps.

化思想为行动,需要发现问题,解决问题,看它的影响。

Even with the advent of the Internet and 24-hour news, it is still a complex enterprise to get people to truly see the problems. When an airplane crashes, officials immediately call a press conference. They promise to investigate, determine the cause, and prevent similar crashes in the future.

即使上网和24小时新闻,仍难看清问题所在。当撞机发生,当局很有压力,承诺调查原因,杜绝下次发生。

But if the officials were brutally honest, they would say: “Of all the people in the world who died today from preventable causes, one half of one percent of them were on this plane. We’re determined to do everything possible to solve the problem that took the lives of the one half of one percent.”

 若当局说真话,今天全世界的人会因各种原因死亡,其中1%的一半在飞机上,我们正在想办法救活另一半。

The bigger problem is not the plane crash, but the millions of preventable deaths.

问题不是空难,而是可避免的死亡。

We don’t read much about these deaths. The media covers what’s new – and millions of people dying is nothing new. So it stays in the background, where it’s easier to ignore. But even when we do see it or read about it, it’s difficult to keep our eyes on the problem. It’s hard to look at suffering if the situation is so complex that we don’t know how to help. And so we look away.

我们了解不多,媒体及时更新,死很多人不是新闻。在大环境下,最容易忽略。即使看到了也不会关注。太复杂我们不知所措,更难了解那种苦难。因此我们回避。
If we can really see a problem, which is the first step, we come to the second step: cutting through the complexity to find a solution.

但若我们真正发现问题,这是第一步,进而第二步,找出解决办法。

Finding solutions is essential if we want to make the most of our caring. If we have clear and proven answers anytime an organization or individual asks “How can I help?,” then we can get action – and we can make sure that none of the caring in the world is wasted. But complexity makes it hard to mark a path of action for everyone who cares — and that makes it hard for their caring to matter.

发现问题至关重要。如果我们知道如何做,就会采取行动,不会浪费关爱。而复杂性让我们却步。

Cutting through complexity to find a solution runs through four predictable stages: determine a goal, find the highest-leverage approach, discover the ideal technology for that approach, and in the meantime, make the smartest application of the technology that you already have — whether it’s something sophisticated, like a drug, or something simpler, like a bednet.

解决问题需要四步,确定目标,找到途径,发现技术,减低需求,即使需要混杂其他的。
The AIDS epidemic offers an example. The broad goal, of course, is to end the disease. The highest-leverage approach is prevention. The ideal technology would be a vaccine that gives lifetime immunity with a single dose. So governments, drug companies, and foundations fund vaccine research. But their work is likely to take more than a decade, so in the meantime, we have to work with what we have in hand – and the best prevention approach we have now is getting people to avoid risky behavior.

以艾滋为例。目标是消灭疾病,途径是预防,最好的技术是疫苗。因此大家通力研究,至少要十年以上,现有的最好办法是防患于未然。

Pursuing that goal starts the four-step cycle again. This is the pattern. The crucial thing is to never stop thinking and working – and never do what we did with malaria and tuberculosis in the 20th century – which is to surrender to complexity and quit.

四步法只是形式。关键是从不停止思考和工作,不抛弃,不放弃。

The final step – after seeing the problem and finding an approach – is to measure the impact of your work and share your successes and failures so that others learn from your efforts.

最后一步,看你工作的影响,分享成功和失败,是他人从中受益。

You have to have the statistics, of course. You have to be able to show that a program is vaccinating millions more children. You have to be able to show a decline in the number of children dying from these diseases. This is essential not just to improve the program, but also to help draw more investment from business and government.

你要统计。帮助了多少孩子,减少了多少死亡。不仅是为了改进,更是获取更多投资。

But if you want to inspire people to participate, you have to show more than numbers; you have to convey the human impact of the work – so people can feel what saving a life means to the families affected.

你若鼓励别人,不仅是数字,还有人道主义的影响,使人知道拯救一条生命的意义。

I remember going to Davos some years back and sitting on a global health panel that was discussing ways to save millions of lives. Millions! Think of the thrill of saving just one person’s life – then multiply that by millions. … Yet this was the most boring panel I’ve ever been on – ever. So boring even I couldn’t bear it.

若干年前我去全球健康委员会讨论拯救生命的事项。救人一命的乐趣再乘以数百万。而这个委员会却是我最难忍受的乏味。
What made that experience especially striking was that I had just come from an event where we were introducing version 13 of some piece of software, and we had people jumping and shouting with excitement. I love getting people excited about software – but why can’t we generate even more excitement for saving lives?

我喜欢我们13种版本的软件使人们兴高采烈,为什么不为拯救生命而兴奋呢?
You can’t get people excited unless you can help them see and feel the impact. And how you do that – is a complex question.

让人兴奋是由于他们感受到了你的影响,困难的是你怎么做到。

Still, I’m optimistic. Yes, inequity has been with us forever, but the new tools we have to cut through complexity have not been with us forever. They are new – they can help us make the most of our caring – and that’s why the future can be different from the past.

对此我很乐观,不平等依然存在,但新技术可以消除复杂性,新型科技是今非昔比的原因所在。
The defining and ongoing innovations of this age – biotechnology, the computer, the Internet – give us a chance we’ve never had before to end extreme poverty and end death from preventable disease.

当代改革的内涵,生物技术,计算机,网络,给了我们消除贫困和疾病的机会。

Sixty years ago, George Marshall came to this commencement and announced a plan to assist the nations of post-war Europe. He said: “I think one difficulty is that the problem is one of such enormous complexity that the very mass of facts presented to the public by press and radio make it exceedingly difficult for the man in the street to reach a clear appraisement of the situation. It is virtually impossible at this distance to grasp at all the real significance of the situation.”

60年前,马歇尔提出援助战后欧洲国家,他说,问题太复杂,媒体提供的大量信息使大众对时局迷惑。弄清远距离时局已不可能。

Thirty years after Marshall made his address, as my class graduated without me, technology was emerging that would make the world smaller, more open, more visible, less distant.

 马歇尔讲话30年后,科技使全球更小,更开放,更可看,更近。

The emergence of low-cost personal computers gave rise to a powerful network that has transformed opportunities for learning and communicating.

低廉的个人电脑的出现使人们通过网络学习和交流的机会增多。
The magical thing about this network is not just that it collapses distance and makes everyone your neighbor. It also dramatically increases the number of brilliant minds we can have working together on the same problem – and that scales up the rate of innovation to a staggering degree.

神奇的是网络缩短了距离,与全球为邻,增加了创意,提高了变革的效率。

At the same time, for every person in the world who has access to this technology, five people don’t. That means many creative minds are left out of this discussion -- smart people with practical intelligence and relevant experience who don’t have the technology to hone their talents or contribute their ideas to the world.

同时,掌握此项技术,意味着更多的创新。智者可以给全球分享他们的天赋。

We need as many people as possible to have access to this technology, because these advances are triggering a revolution in what human beings can do for one another. They are making it possible not just for national governments, but for universities, corporations, smaller organizations, and even individuals to see problems, see approaches, and measure the impact of their efforts to address the hunger, poverty, and desperation George Marshall spoke of 60 years ago.

这就需要越来越多的人掌握这一技术,是人类贡献的革命。它不仅使国家,大学,公司,团体,及个人等,发现问题,解决问题,评估自己的能力去消除饥饿,贫困,和绝望,正如60年前马歇尔所言。

Members of the Harvard Family: Here in the Yard is one of the great collections of intellectual talent in the world.
What for?

哈佛的成员,这里是全球最伟大智力和天赋的集合地,你们将为何而动?

There is no question that the faculty, the alumni, the students, and the benefactors of Harvard have used their power to improve the lives of people here and around the world. But can we do more? Can Harvard dedicate its intellect to improving the lives of people who will never even hear its name?

毫无疑问,各学院,毕业生,学生,捐赠者应经在努力提高人们的生活质量,但我们还能做更多吗?哈佛可否帮助那些素未相识的人呢?

Let me make a request of the deans and the professors – the intellectual leaders here at Harvard: As you hire new faculty, award tenure, review curriculum, and determine degree requirements, please ask yourselves:

我想请求各位,当你雇佣员工,回顾课程,决定学位申请时,可否扪心自问:
Should our best minds be dedicated to solving our biggest problems?

是否我们最好的智力用于解决最大的问题?

Should Harvard encourage its faculty to take on the world’s worst inequities?

是否哈佛激励师生关切世界最不公?

Should Harvard students learn about the depth of global poverty … the prevalence of world hunger … the scarcity of clean water …the girls kept out of school … the children who die from diseases we can cure?

是否哈佛的学生知道全球贫困的深度,饥饿的广度,洁净水的少度,辍学儿童的量度,病死儿童的多度?

Should the world’s most privileged people learn about the lives of the world’s least privileged?

是否最幸运的人知道最不幸人的生活?

These are not rhetorical questions – you will answer with your policies.

这不是口头的问题,你必须用实际行动来回答。

My mother, who was filled with pride the day I was admitted here – never stopped pressing me to do more for others. A few days before my wedding, she hosted a bridal event, at which she read aloud a letter about marriage that she had written to Melinda. My mother was very ill with cancer at the time, but she saw one more opportunity to deliver her message, and at the close of the letter she said: “From those to whom much is given, much is expected.”

我老妈一直让我关心他人。几天前她给我主持婚礼,读了一封信,当时她病得不轻,但是她在传递一个信息,信尾,她说,得到的越多,付出的就应该更多。

When you consider what those of us here in this Yard have been given – in talent, privilege, and opportunity – there is almost no limit to what the world has a right to expect from us.

各位都有才华,机遇,可以给世界无限的贡献。

In line with the promise of this age, I want to exhort each of the graduates here to take on an issue – a complex problem, a deep inequity, and become a specialist on it. If you make it the focus of your career, that would be phenomenal. But you don’t have to do that to make an impact. For a few hours every week, you can use the growing power of the Internet to get informed, find others with the same interests, see the barriers, and find ways to cut through them.

此刻,我想请求大家关注复杂的问题,社会的不公,并成为此方面的专家,如果当成毕生的职业,一定功勋卓著。其实你只要每周几小时通过网络了解信息,认识同志,解决问题就可以了。

Don’t let complexity stop you. Be activists. Take on the big inequities. It will be one of the great experiences of your lives.

不要被困难压倒,积极主动些,解决最大的不公,将使你的人生绚丽。

You graduates are coming of age in an amazing time. As you leave Harvard, you have technology that members of my class never had. You have awareness of global inequity, which we did not have. And with that awareness, you likely also have an informed conscience that will torment you if you abandon these people whose lives you could change with very little effort. You have more than we had; you must start sooner, and carry on longer.

你们成长在一个日新月异的时代,当你离开哈佛,有更多的技术,认识,良知跟随你。你绝不会放弃努力。你拥有的越多,就应该开始的越早,坚持的更长。

Knowing what you know, how could you not?

了解自己的能力,你什么做不成呢?
And I hope you will come back here to Harvard 30 years from now and reflect on what you have done with your talent and your energy.

再过30年,希望你们能载誉而归。

I hope you will judge yourselves not on your professional accomplishments alone, but also on how well you have addressed the world’s deepest inequities … on how well you treated people a world away who have nothing in common with you but their humanity.

希望你评判自己的一生,不用个人的得失,而用你改变世界多少,拯救人类多少!

Good luck.

祝福你们!

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